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Structure and Replication of Orthomyxoviruses


Introduction

Influenza A, B, and C viruses are the only members of the Orthomyxoviridae family, and only influenza A and B viruses cause significant human disease. The orthomyxoviruses are enveloped and have a segmented negative-sense RNA genome. The segmented genome of these viruses facilitates the development of new strains through the mutation and reassortment of the gene segments among different human and animal (influenza A) strains of virus. This genetic instability is responsible for the annual epidemics (mutation: drift) and periodic pandemics (reassortment: shift) of influenza infection worldwide.

Influenza is one of the most prevalent and significant viral infections. There are even descriptions of influenza epidemics (local dissemination) that occurred in ancient times. Probably the most famous influenza pandemic (worldwide) is the Spanish influenza that swept the world in 1918 to 1919, killing 20 to 40 million people. In fact, more people died of influenza during that time than in the battles of World War I. Pandemics caused by novel influenza viruses occurred in 1918, 1947, 1957, 1968, and 1977, but fortunately none have occurred since. New virus strains have been detected since the last pandemic, including an outbreak of avian influenza first noted in Hong Kong in 1997, which has caused some human disease and fatalities. Fortunately, prophylaxis in the form of vaccines and antiviral drugs is now available for people at risk for serious outcomes.

To read more click on this link to the full article: Structure and Replication of Orthomyxoviruses.
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  1. February 14, 2012 at 17:25

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